Average temperatures on the planets of the Solar system
What are the average temperatures on the planets of the Solar system?
For anybody not a secret that earth is the only habitable planet in our Solar system. All the planets, except the Earth, is distinguished by the lack of breathable atmosphere, and many of them are still too hot, or Vice versa — frozen worlds.
Planet in our Solar system with the observance of very large scale, in the lower left part of the picture of the orbit of the planets / NASA image
“Inhabited area” exists in every star system has planets, it is a certain conditional scope, when in which the planets water can exist in liquid phase. In this connection the planets or their satellites, there are conditions suitable for the emergence of life, similar to earth.
So, hot and cold worlds in our Solar system! What exactly do we know about the temperature of their surfaces and which has an impact on these temperatures?
Of the eight planets in the Solar system mercury is the closest to the Sun, thus one would expect that he will be the “hot” on our list. However, as it has no atmosphere and rotates around its axis very slowly, the temperature at its surface varies in rather wide ranges.
Slow rotation around the axis causes the side Mercuriality to the Sun is heated to 427 °C. meanwhile, on the opposite side, temperatures drop to -173 °C, thus, the average temperature of mercury would be 67 °C.
Venus is incredibly hot, hostile world, because of the combination of its dense atmosphere and proximity to the Sun / image: NASA / JPL
Venus is the second planet close to the Sun, also boasts a high surface temperature, up to 470 °C. This temperature on the surface of Venus due to the greenhouse effect, slow rotation around the axis, as well as the proximity to the Sun. Because of the dense atmosphere daily temperature fluctuations are minor, despite being on the border of the habitable zone, life on Venus, in our understanding impossible.
Greenhouse gases and the density of the atmosphere of Venus has created a powerful greenhouse effect, a significant portion of solar heat retained by the planet’s atmosphere, and the surface is a barren landscape and melted. On the surface of Venus are thousands of ancient volcanoes spewing lava in the past, hundreds of craters, the planet’s crust is very thin, it is weakened by high temperatures and little prevents the eruptions of lava on the outside. Extremely inhospitable place by any standards!
The earth is the third planet from the Sun
The earth is the third planet from the Sun, it is still the only known habitable planet. The average surface temperature is 7.2 °C and it varies depending on a number of factors. A significant influence on temperatures of the Northern and southern hemispheres of the planet has axial tilt, this means that at certain times of the year one hemisphere gets more light from the Sun and the other hemisphere on the contrary — less.
But despite all this, on Earth there is an extreme place, for example, in Antarctica was record low temperature -91,2 °C, and in Death Valley, located in the area of the Mojave desert, USA, was positive in the temperature of 56.7 °C.
The thin atmosphere of Mars, visible on the horizon, is too weak to retain heat on the planet / NASA image
The average temperature on the surface of Mars is -55 °C, but temperature fluctuations on the red planet. On the equator the temperatures can reach values of 20 °C, while at the poles the thermometer drops to -153 °C. But the average on Mars is much colder than on Earth, due to its thin atmosphere that cannot trap heat received from the Sun, and that it is located on the outer edge of the habitable zone.
Jupiter is a gas giant and the largest planet in the Solar system
Jupiter is a gas giant and the largest planet in the Solar system. It has no surface and we therefore can’t measure its temperature, however, the measurements were conducted in the upper part of the atmosphere of Jupiter showed a temperature of approximately -145 °C, approaching the center of the planet, we see the temperature rise due to atmospheric pressure.
At the point where the atmospheric pressure of Jupiter is ten times bigger than on Earth, the temperature reaches 21 °C, which we consider to be comfortable, and in the planet’s core temperature reaches 35 to 700 °C — hotter than the surface of the Sun.
Saturn and its rings
Saturn —second largest planet after Jupiter, a cold gas giant with an average temperature of -178 °C. because of the inclination of the axis of Saturn, the southern and Northern hemispheres are heated differently, resulting in on the planet there are seasonal fluctuations in temperatures and powerful winds. Like Jupiter, the temperature in the upper atmosphere of Saturn is quite low, but closer to the center of the planet the temperature is rising. As expected, in the planet’s core temperature to reach 11 700 °C.
The image of Uranus obtained with the spacecraft Voyager-2 in 1986
Uranus is unlike the gas giants of Jupiter and Saturn, which consist mainly of hydrogen and helium, in the bowels of Uranium, and also like him Neptune there is no metallic hydrogen, but large quantities of ice is present in the high-temperature modifications, this is why these two planets have been allocated in a separate class — “Ice giants”. The temperature of the Uranium at a pressure of 0.1 bar is -224 °C making it the coldest planet in the Solar system, Uranus is even colder than Neptune, which is farther from the Sun.
The image of Neptune obtained with the spacecraft Voyager-2
The temperature of the upper atmosphere of Neptune is lowered -218 °C, the planet is the second coldest place in our Solar system. But like all gas giants, Neptune has a hot core, the temperature of which is about 7000 ° C. the Weather on a planet — devastating storms and the winds reach supersonic speeds, most of the winds on Neptune blow in a direction opposite to the rotation of the planet, on the General scheme of the winds shows that at high latitudes the wind direction coincides with the rotation of the planet, and the low — the opposite of him.
Summarizing, we can say that our Solar system rushes from one extreme to another — from extreme cold to unbearably hot, and in General there are only a few places that are quite suitable to sustain life. And of all places the Earth is the only planet most suitable for the maintaining of life.