Galactic paradigm

Summarizes the main provisions of the Galactocentric paradigm [1], which links the cyclical nature of geological processes on the Earth with cosmic phenomena in the Galaxy and in the Solar system. It justifies a new vision of the nature and structure of spiral galaxies. On a uniform methodological basis of the proposed coordinated solution of some fundamental problems of astronomy and the Earth Sciences. Created the necessary framework for a close encounter of the geological and cosmic fields of knowledge.

13. Comets of the Solar system.

Before the discovery of the phenomenon of jet expiration of the question of the origin of comets of the Solar system remained highly controversial. Their properties are difficult to explain by capture of comets by the galactic origin of the Sun and the formation of small bodies in the Solar system. It is a mistake to consider them as coming from Oort comet cloud [94], which arose in the formation of the Solar system. In the interactions of the Sun with other stars or during its migration through the condensation of cosmic dust and gas cloud of such comets will inevitably cease to exist [95, 96].

Galactocentric paradigm solves the problem of comets in the Solar system otherwise [1]. All these comets, long-period and short-period, are regarded as captured by the attraction of the Sun, the products of collisions of comets jet streams of the Galaxy with the bodies esteroideos (Fig. 18).

Fig. 18. The cross section of the ring of asteroids the plane perpendicular to the Ecliptic and passing through the Sun: the shaded region with different spatial density of telephone loop is Shown that in the plane of the largest asteroids are Pallas, Ceres and Vesta [97].

Section destruction of galactic comets in collisions in the asteroid belt is much greater than the probability of falling on the Sun, not to mention planets (Fig. 19).

Fig. 19. Section of destruction of the comet in the asteroid belt, depending on the diameter of the comet nucleus. The dotted line is the cross – sectional area of the Sun.

The analysis shows that in the collision of comets and asteroids both bodies are crushed and vaporized, and the substance physically and chemically mixed. So the comets of the Solar system represent a conglomeration of [98] of cometary matter galactic origin, mixed with a larger or smaller amount of solid (debris) and gaseous (evaporated) material of asteroids.

Most comets in the Solar system as short-period and long-period, have any 1. 5 million years ago during the last stay of the Sun in the jet flow of Orion-Cygnus. The differences of their orbits and composition of substances easily are explained by a different initial velocity of the release of the two groups of comets zone.

Short-period comets left the zone close to the Ecliptic plane and with relatively low velocities that would not let them far away from the Sun. Since birth they have done many thousands of revolutions around the Sun and now have been able to persist only in the intervals between the orbits of giant planets [99].

Long-period comets, by contrast, were ejected from the belt in all directions, and at a speed close to critical ” 25 km/s. Due to the movement of the Sun on an orbit with acceleration, in the return of those comets back to the Sun their original elliptical trajectory are transformed into subparabolic and slavogermanica, which leads to the loss of this comet in the Solar system. Today mostly observed long-period comet, completing its first revolution around the Sun. The radius of their orbits, the third law of Kepler, is

10 4. 10 5 and.e. and the direction of arrival in the Solar system is close to isotropic.

Thus, no excess of comets at the periphery of the Solar system not. And what has been called the “comet of the Oort cloud” is just the locus of secondary ataliev orbits of comets, for the first time after departure 1. 5 million years ago from the asteroid belt to the Sun returning. The total number of long – and short-period comets exist around the Sun estimated value

10 7 [1].

Unlike short-period comets, lost under the action of solar radiation a significant part of icy gas and dust of the galactic matter, long-period comets, these have kept ice. The material composition of comets of the Solar system (table. 4) suggest that the fraction of water in the galactic comets can reach

80. 90 %, of carbon – 5. 10 %, and the total content of heavier chemical elements – first cent.

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