Planets of the Solar system for kids

The section presents the planets of the Solar system for kids pictures. You can download it free by clicking on the image.

The solar system includes the four smaller inner planets: mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, also called terrestrial group planets, are composed mainly of silicates and metals. The four outer planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, also called the gas giants, is largely composed of hydrogen and helium and is much more massive than the terrestrial planets.

Most large objects orbiting the Sun, moving in nearly the same plane, called plane of the Ecliptic. However, at the same time, comets and objects in the Kuiper belt and often have large angles of inclination to this plane.

All the planets and most other objects revolve around the Sun in the same direction with the Sun’s rotation (counter-clockwise when viewed from above the North pole of the Sun). There are exceptions, such as Halley’s comet. The greatest angular velocity has mercury — he manages to make a complete revolution around the Sun in just 88 earth days. And for the most distant planet — Neptune — orbital period is 165 earth years.

A large part of the planets rotates around its axis in the same direction as the orbit around the Sun.The exceptions are Venus and Uranus, and Uranus rotates almost “lying” on the side (axial tilt near 90°).

Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun and the smallest planet in the solar system (0.055 Earth masses). Mercury has no satellites, and its only known geological features besides impact craters are numerous jagged slopes, stretching for hundreds of kilometers of scarp.

Venus is similar in size to the Earth (0,815 earth masses) and like Earth, has a thick silicate shell around the iron core and the atmosphere. There is also evidence of internal geological activity. However, the much drier than earth, and its atmosphere is ninety times as dense. Venus has no satellites. It is the hottest planet, its surface temperature exceeds 400 °C.

Mars is smaller than Earth and Venus (0,107 Earth masses). It has an atmosphere consisting mainly of carbon dioxide. Its surface has volcanoes, the largest of which, Olympus, exceeds the size of all earth’s volcanoes, reaching a height of 21.2 km.

The red color of the surface of Mars caused by a large number of iron oxide in its soil. The planet has two satellites — Phobos and Deimos. It is assumed that they are captured asteroids

Asteroids are the most common small bodies of the Solar system.

Jupiter has a mass 318 Earth masses, is 2.5 times more massive than all other planets combined. It consists mainly of hydrogen and helium. Jupiter has 65 moons. The four largest — Ganymede, Callisto, IO and Europe — similar to the planets of terrestrial group phenomena such as volcanic activity and internal heating.

Saturn . known for its extensive ring system, has several similarities with the structure of Jupiter atmosphere and magnetosphere. Although the size of Saturn is 60 % of Jupiter’s mass (95 Earth masses) is less than a third of Jupiter; therefore, Saturn is the least dense planet in the Solar system (its average density is comparable to density of water). Saturn has 62 confirmed satellites; two of them, Titan and Enceladus, show signs of geological activity. This activity, however, is not similar to that of earth, as largely due to the activity of ice. Titanium, exceeding the size of mercury, is the only satellite in the Solar system with a substantial atmosphere.

Uranium with a mass of 14 Earth masses, is the lightest of the outer planets. Unique among other planets it does what it rotates “lying on its side”. If other planets can be compared to spinning tops, Uranus is more like a rolling ball. It has a much colder core than the other gas giants, and radiates very little heat into space. The Uranium opened 27 satellites; the largest is Titania, Oberon, Umbriel, Ariel and Miranda.

Neptune . though slightly smaller than Uranus, is more massive (17 Earth masses) and therefore more dense. It radiates more internal heat, but not as much as Jupiter or Saturn. Neptune has 13 known satellites. The largest, Triton, is geologically active, with geysers of liquid nitrogen. Triton is the only large satellite moving in the opposite direction. Also Neptune is accompanied by asteroids, called the Trojans of Neptune.

Comets are small Solar system bodies, typically only a few kilometers, consisting mainly of volatiles (ICES).

The Kuiper belt — the region of relicts from the formation of the Solar system, which is a large belt of debris similar to the asteroid belt, but composed mainly of ice

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