The history of space development
The development of science and technology is a long way and advance to the person help the desire for knowledge and the ability to dream. One of the most ancient is the dream of flying. Originally it was flying through the air with wings. The most famous myth about this subject is the myth of Daedalus and Icarus. However, in other cultures you can find mention of the heroes flying through the sky.
With the development of ideas about the world people began to realize that the stars and planets are not dots painted on the dome of the sky, and other worlds, separated from us by enormous distances. This realization has given the impetus for new dreams. Dreams about flying in world space to other stars and planets. The earliest works devoted to interplanetary flights offer as the vehicle wings or balloons. So in 1638 Bishop John Wilkins proposed the use of wings to fly to the moon.
The next important step after realizing interplanetary distances was the discovery of the fact that the atmosphere has a limit. In 1647 French mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal put the experiment in which it was zamarano atmospheric pressure at the foot and on the top of the mountain Puy de-dôme (4300 feet). The results were different, and on this basis was built the theory that atmosphereexcellent due to exposure to the weight of the air. Since it is not infinite, it is logical to assume that the column of air has a limited height. Apparently not all the writers were familiar with the scientific theories, so fantastic work describing the flight to the moon or to the planets on hot air balloons was published until the end of the 19th century, when studies of the atmosphere using balloons definitively proved the rapid decrease of air density with height.
Because in space wings are useless, you can use an inertial motion. For the first time the thought of flying outside the atmosphere of inertia expressed by Isaac Newton in his book “Mathematical principles of natural philosophy”, published in 1687. Newton posed the following thought experiment. Imagine, he wrote, the highest mountain peak which is outside the atmosphere. Imagine a cannon on top of it and shooting horizontally. The more powerful the charge used for the shot, the further away mountains would be to fly the projectile. Finally, at some value of the charge the projectile will develop such a velocity that it will not fall down on the earth, going into orbit. Niches in the days of this speed is known as the first space and to the Earth it is equal to 7.91 km/sec. In 1865 was published as a novel by Jules Verne “From the earth to the moon direct way for 97 hours and 20 minutes.” The author, based on Newton’s ideas described the launch of a spacecraft to the moon using a giant cannon. Of course, in reality this method is unacceptable, however, this novel marked a new direction of thinking about space flights and has inspired many people to study this issue.
So by the end of the 19th century it was known that in interplanetary space there is no air, the distances to celestial bodies are rather large, a significant problem represents the resistance of the atmosphere and Earth’s gravity. Had to compile these data and to find ways of implementation of space flights.
His decision offers a schoolteacher Konstantin Tsiolkovsky. In 1883 he published the work “Free space”. It examines the space with negligibly small forces of gravity and movement in it interplanetary ship. Tsiolkovsky proves that this space is dominated in the Universe. He proposes to use for movement therein the jet device, provided with a motor, sistei control and life support. Describes the state of weightlessness and its influence on living organisms.
After 10 years in the Berlin media reported about the German inventor Herman Ganswindt, which proposed the principle of reactive motion for interplanetary travel. In 1899 Ganswindt published a book in which more describe your project spacecraft. He mistakenly believed that the rockets are moving, starting from the air and therefore not suitable in the void. To get traction, the inventor proposed to blow up the ship under a metal capsule with dynamite. One half of the capsule when it immediately flies away, and the second hits the ship, telling him accelerate and then bounces down. The work of Ganswindt had no practical value, however, contributed to the development in Germany of interest in interplanetary flights.
But Konstantin Tsiolkovsky was evaluated by missiles. In 1903. he published the book “Study of the world prostrantsve rocket appliances”. There he proved the impossibility of the use of balloons or cannons for space flight and justified the choice of the launch as the only possible option. Moreover, in this work, Tsiolkovsky proposes that liquid-propellant rocket engine, hydrogen and oxygen, and the use of hydrocarbons as fuels. The book is scientific in nature, it presents research on the optimal trajectories of the acceleration of the rocket in the atmosphere. Here we find the famous formula of Tsiolkovsky, which became the Foundation of rocket space.