The structure of the Solar system
Hello dear readers! In this post we will talk about the structure of the Solar system. I think you just need to know where in the Universe is our planet, and what else is in our Solar system besides planets.
Our planet Earth is part of the system of planets and other celestial bodies that rotate around a star called the Sun. The solar system is one of many such systems in the Universe .
The solar system is a system of cosmic bodies, which in addition to the Central luminary – the Sun, nine major planets, their satellites, the numerous small planets, comets, space dust and small meteoroids that move in the field pre-emption gravitational action of the Sun.
In the middle of the sixteenth century was uncovered the General structure of the Solar system Polish astronomer Nicholas Copernicus. He disproved the idea that the Earth is the center of the Universe and substantiate the presentation of the motion of planets around the Sun. This model of the Solar system was called the heliocentric.
In the XVII century, Kepler discovered the law of planetary motion, and Newton formulated the law of gravity. But only after Galilei in 1609 invented a telescope, it became possible to study the physical characteristics included in the Solar system, space tel.
So Galileo, nabludaetsa sunspots, first discovered the Sun’s rotation around its axis.
Planet Earth is one of nine celestial bodies (or planets) that move around the Sun in outer space.
The main part of the Solar system are planets. which different speeds rotate around the Sun in the same direction and almost in the same plane in elliptical orbits and are at different distances.
Planets are situated in the following order from the Sun: mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto. But sometimes Pluto is receding from the Sun more than 7 billion miles, but because of the huge mass of the Sun, which is almost 750 times the mass of all other planets, remains in the sphere of its attraction.
The largest planet is Jupiter. Its diameter is 11 times the diameter of Earth and is 142 800 km. The smallest planet is Pluto, the diameter of which is only 2 km 284
The planets that are closest to the Sun (mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars) are very different from the next four. They are called terrestrial planets. because, like the Earth, composed of solid rock.
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, are called the planets of Jupiter type. and giant planets, in contrast, consist mostly of hydrogen.
Also, there are other differences between the planets Jupiter and earth type. “Yupiteriantsy” together with numerous satellites form their own “solar system”.
At least 22 satellites of Saturn. And just three satellites, including the moon, earth-like planets. And besides, Jupiter type planet surrounded by rings.
The debris of planets.
Between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter there is a large gap, which could accommodate another planet. This space is actually filled with many celestial bodies of small size, which are called asteroids, or minor planets.
Ceres is the largest asteroid with a diameter of about 1000 km so far openly 2500 asteroids, which in size is much less than Ceres. It blocks with widths that do not exceed the size of several kilometers.
Most of the asteroids revolve around the Sun in a wide “asteroid belt” located between Mars and Jupiter. The orbits of some asteroids are beyond the belt, and sometimes approaching quite close to the Ground.
These asteroids cannot be seen with the naked eye because their size is too small, and they are very removed from us. But other fragments – for example, comets may be visible in the night sky due to its bright lights.
Comets are celestial bodies, which consist of ice particles and dust. Most of the time the comet is moving in distant areas of our Solar system and is invisible to the human eye, but when she approaches the Sun, it begins to glow.
This happens under the influence of solar heat. Ice partially evaporates and turns into gas, releasing dust particles. The comet becomes visible because the dust cloud reflecting sunlight. Cloud, under the pressure of the solar wind, fluttering turns into a long tail.
Also, there are space objects that can be observed almost every night. They burn up when entering the atmosphere of Earth, leaving the sky glowing a narrow trail – a meteor. These bodies are called meteoroids, and their was no larger than grains of sand.
Meteorites are large meteoroids that reach the earth’s surface. Due to collision with the earth the huge meteorite in the distant past, have formed huge craters on its surface. Almost a million tons of meteor dust is annually deposited on the Earth.
The birth of the Solar system.
Large gas-dust nebulae, or clouds strewn among the stars of our galaxy. In the same cloud, around 4600 million years ago, was born our Solar system. This was the birth as a result of collapse (compression) of the cloud under the action of gravitational forces eat.
Then the cloud began rotating. And eventually it turned into a rotating disk, the bulk of the substance of which was concentrated in the center. Gravitational collapse continued, the Central seal is decreased continuously and warmed up.
Thermonuclear reaction began at a temperature of tens of million degrees and the Central sealing substance broke out a new star – the Sun.
The planets formed from the disk of dust and gas. The collision of dust particles and their transformation into large chunks, place in heated internal areas. This process is called accretion – increment.
Mutual attraction and collision of all these blocks and led to the formation of earth-like planets.
These planets had weak gravitational field and were too small to attract the lighter gases (such as helium and hydrogen), which are part of the accretion disk.
The temperature was significantly lower farther from the center, and those planets that were formed there, attracted gases. That is why the planet Jupiter have extensive atmosphere .
The birth of the Solar system was an everyday occurrence – constantly and everywhere in the Universe are born of such a system. And maybe, in one such system there is a planet similar to Earth where there is intelligent life…