Through thorns to the stars
For the first time people looked up do not romantic, but pragmatic goals on 23 March 1881. Strangely enough, the idea of flying in space came to Nikolai Kibalchich in prison.
A few days before the execution, he developed the original project of the aircraft with oscillating combustion chamber for thrust vector control. Naturally, his request for transfer of drawings to the Academy of Sciences was rejected. Project miracle was not lost and was published only in 1918.
But even before its publication the great Konstantin Tsiolkovsky proposed the idea of using rockets for space flight. A prototype of the device he designed in 1903.
In parallel space the work was in full swing in other countries. In the 1920s, German scientist Hermann Oberth described the principles of interplanetary flight. And his American colleague Robert Goddard began to develop liquid rocket engine. March 16, 1926, a scientist launched the first liquid rocket. She worked on the fuel from gasoline and liquid oxygen.
Later all scientific ardor cooled by the Second world war. Only 1946 work on the conquest of space was continued. In the Soviet Union its interim result was the creation of the world’s first Intercontinental ballistic missile R-7. Later imenieto the development of Sergei Korolev and his colleagues used for the launch of the first artificial Earth satellite. On the chronology of cosmic events developed as follows:
On October 4, 1957 — launch of the first artificial Earth satellite Sputnik-1.
November 3, 1957 — launch of the second artificial satellite Sputnik 2, with the first ever cosmos living creature —the dog Laika.
January 4, 1959 — station “Luna-1” was held at a distance of 6000 kilometers from the surface of the moon and entered heliocentric orbit. She became the world’s first artificial satellite of the Sun.
September 14, 1959 — station “Luna-2” was the first to reach the lunar surface in the Sea area Clear near the craters Aristides, Archimedes, and Autolycus, bringing a pennant with the Soviet coat of arms.
October 4, 1959 — launch of the automatic interplanetary station “Luna-3”, which for the first time in the world photographed invisible from the Earth side of the moon. Also during the flight for the first time in the world was made gravitational maneuver.
19 August 1960 — the first ever orbital flight into space living beings to successfully return to Earth. On the ship “Sputnik-5” this flight has carried the dogs Belka and Strelka.
12 April 1961 — the first manned mission into space aboard the Vostok 1. “Sunny boy” was Yuri Gagarin.
12 August 1962 — the first ever group space flight in the ships Vostok-3 and Vostok-4. The closest approach of the ships was about 6.5 km away.
16 June 1963 — the first ever space flight of a woman cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova on Board the spaceship Vostok-6.
October 12, 1964 — flew the world’s first multi-seater spacecraft Voskhod-1.
18 March 1965 — the first in the history of humans in space. Cosmonaut Alexei Leonov stepped into the abyss.
March 1, 1966 — station “Venera-3” for the first time reached the surface of Venus, bringing a pennant of the USSR. It was the first flight of the spacecraft from Earth to another planet.
15 September 1968 — first return of a spacecraft (Probe-5) to Earth after orbiting the moon. Onboard there were living beings: turtles, fruit flies, worms, plants, seeds, bacteria.
July 21, 1969 — Neil Armstrong landed on the moon.
November 17, 1970 — soft landing and start of work of the world’s first semi-automatic remotely controlled self-propelled machine, controlled from Earth: Lunokhod-1.
13 November 1971 — station “Mariner-9” was the first artificial satellite of Mars.
27 November 1971 — station “Mars-2” for the first time reached the surface of Mars.
March 3, 1972 — launch of the first apparatus, subsequently left the Solar system: pioneer 10.
20 October 1975 — station “Venera-9” became the first artificial satellite of Venus.
October 1975 — the soft landing of two spacecraft “Venera-9” and “Venera-10” the world’s first Photographs of the surface of Venus.
20 February 1986 — the launch of the base module of the orbital station Mir.
On 7 December 1995 station Galileo became the first artificial satellite of Jupiter.
June 30, 2004 — station “Cassini” became the first artificial moon of Saturn.
March 17, 2011 — station “MESSENGER” became the first artificial satellite of mercury.
August 6, 2012 – for scientific purposes “primarily” the Rover Curiosity.
In 2009 in the world on the space program spent $68 billion, including: in U.S. — $48.8 billion, EU — $7.9 billion, Japan — $3 billion, Russia $2.8 billion, China — $2 billion.