What object in the Solar system the black?
Space and Humanity
Upon learning the results of the flyby on 22 September 2001 automatic probe “Deep space 1” past the comet Borrelli, astronomers came to the conclusion that its eight-core – the black body in the Solar system. In General, as shown by the study of other comets, the nuclei of these heavenly bodies differ dark color, but the comet Borrelli has surpassed all.
The substance of its nucleus represents less than 3 percent of incident light that is comparable to black powder-the toner for copiers and laser printers. For example, fresh asphalt reflects 7% of the light. But the nucleus of the comet has more black areas, reflecting only 0.7 percent of sunlight. Guess that’s some kind of high-molecular carbon compounds that are unable to evaporate under the heat of sun rays. Why are comets tails?
According to the figurative expression of the American astronomer Fred AIPLA, the nucleus of the comet is like a “dirty snowball”. It has dimensions from hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers and consist of frozen gases (or low-melting substances which at normal pressure and room temperature would be in the gaseous state) with rocky inclusions of refractory particles and dust. At the approach of the comet to Solntsepad the action of its rays “ice” begins to evaporate and there is a foggy gaseous envelope, with the nucleus forming the head of a comet with a diameter of from one thousand to a million kilometers. The head is formed from the gas tail of a comet directed from the Sun of the opposite side (away from the Sun, the comet is as if walking is going tail first). Before the cause of the deviation of the tail considered exclusively the pressure of sunlight. However, it is now known that this effect of the solar wind, which is two orders of magnitude (approximately 100 times) stronger than the gravitational attraction of the Sun, but because the molecules head retarded. Comet tails sometimes extend for tens and hundreds of millions of kilometers. However, the substance of the tails is so sparse that through them I can see the stars without any attenuation of light (a cubic kilometer of comet tail contains less matter than a cubic millimeter of the earth’s atmosphere at sea level).